A Universal Level Converter Towards the Realization of Energy Efficient Implantable Drug Delivery Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems

Saraju Mohanty1,  Dhruva Ghai1,  Elias Kougianos1,  Bharat Joshi2
1University of North Texas, 2University of North Carolina at Charlotte


NEMS are a technological solution for building miniature systems which can be beneficial in terms of safety, efficacy, or convenience. Thus investigation is necessary for their usefulness in drug delivery. In order to be an effective and reliable implantable system the DDNEMS (Drug Delivery Nano-Electro-Mechanical-System) should have low power dissipation, and fault tolerance and reconfigurability capabilities. In this paper we introduce a DDNEMS architecture, identify its major components and propose the design of the crucial component universal (voltage) level converter (ULC). The ULC is a unique component that will reduce dynamic power and leakage of DDNEMS while facilitating its reconfigurability. The ULC is capable of performing level-up and level-down conversions and can block an input signal. We have prototyped a ULC using $32nm$ high-$\kappa$/metal-gate nano-CMOS technology with dual-$V_{Th}$ technique. The robustness of the design is tested by carrying out three types of analysis, namely: parametric, load and power. It is observed that the ULC produces a stable output for voltages as low as $0.35V$ and loads varying from $50 fF$ to $120fF$. The average power dissipation of the proposed level converter with a $82fF$ capacitive load is $5\mu W$.