Novel Implementation of High-Performance Polynomial Multiplication for Unified KEM Saber based on TMVP Design Strategy

Pengzhou He and Jiafeng Xie
Villanova University


The rapid advancement in quantum technology has initiated a new round of exploration of efficient implementation of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) on hardware platforms. Key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) Saber, a module lattice-based PQC, is one of the four encryption scheme finalists in the third-round National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standardization process. In this paper, we propose a novel Toeplitz Matrix-Vector Product (TMVP)-based design strategy to efficiently implement polynomial multiplication (essential arithmetic operation) for KEM Saber. The proposed work consists of three layers of interdependent efforts: (i) first of all, we have formulated the polynomial multiplication of KEM Saber into a desired mathematical form for further developing into the proposed TMVP-based algorithm for high-performance operation; (ii) then, we have followed the proposed TMVP-based algorithm to innovatively transfer the derived algorithm into a unified polynomial multiplication structure (fits all security ranks) with the help of a series of algorithm-to-architecture co-implementation/mapping techniques; (iii) finally, detailed implementation results and complexity analysis have confirmed the efficiency of the proposed TMVP design strategy. Specifically, the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation results show that the proposed design has at least less 30.92% area-delay product (ADP) than the competing ones.